Mongolia, which is one of the oldest civilizations on earth, continues to draw a keen interest of people of diverse nationalities to explore its unique historical past, the peculiar features of its social and economic development, its unusual beauty and almost untouched nature.
Mongolian culture has many distinctive features closely connected with the Nomadic life style. Starting from ancient times, Mongolians have been living in the vast lands of Central Asia raising livestock and living a nomadic way of life. These patterns are still reflected in everyday thinking and the culture.
One of the unique features of nomadic culture is that Mongolian people live in full harmony with Mother Nature. In comparison with settled peoples, the nomadic herders face nature directly on a day in, day out basis. Through this, the herders are involved in multifaced relationship with nature. This is why Mother Nature is the theme of many epics, blessings, and well-wishes. There are many traditions, customs, and teachings regarding the protection and care of Mother Nature. In fact disrupting nature like digging up and destroying land, putting pollutants into the water ways, killing animals and destroying forests are considered sins and are thus strictly prohibited even today.
Shamanism is closely related to Mongolian nomadic culture. The tribes in Mongolia followed shamanism from the times of the Great Huns until the formation of the Uighur Empire. Shamanism reflects the feeling Mongolians have towards Mother Nature. For this reason shamans performed rituals of worshipping the master of mountains, water, Sky and land. Some of these traditions, mixed with the Mongolian lifestyle, oral literature, folklore and symbolism, are important components of Mongolian nomadic culture today.
Buddhism, which was introduced to Mongolia in the 16th century, has also played an enormous role in the development of Mongolian culture. The Mongolians perceptions, psychology, traditions, thinking, and world outlook were enriched by the Buddhist philosophy and world view.