The city of Ulaan Baatar was first established in 1639 and was set up in its current location some 228 years ago in 1778 and was named the “City of Felt”, after which it was known as the “Great Camp” ruled under the Bogd Khaan. It has only been referred to as Ulaan Baatar or “Red Hero” and been declared the official capital of Mongolia three years following the Russians invasion in 1921. The Russian influence for more than 70 years left Ulaan Baatar a relatively young city, since many of the original buildings, including monasteries have been destroyed and replaced by Soviet-style buildings.
It is located on a plain in central east Mongolia, surrounded by four mountains, Chingeltei Mountain to the north, Bayanzurkh Mountain to the east, Bogd Khan Mountain to the south, with Songino Khairekhan Mountain to the west. The Tuul river runs through the city from east to west as does the Trans Mongolian Railway (the Mongolia section of the Trans Siberian Railway).
Ulaan Baatar is by far Mongolia’s largest city with a 2014 year-end population of 1,3mln people representing a staggering 45 percent of the countries total population. With a total land area of approximately 4,700 square kilometers, Ulaan Baatar has nine districts, five in the central area; Sukhbaatar, Chingeltei, Bayangol, Bayan Zurkh and Khan Uul district (where the subject site is located) and a further four suburban districts; Bagakhangai, Baganuur, Nalaikh and Songino Khaikhan district.
Interesting sights in Ulaan Baatar include Gandan Monastery which is the largest and most significant monastery in Mongolia, Janraisig Temple, the Museum of Mongolian History, Choijin Lama Monastery, the Art Gallery, Bogdo Khan Palace Museum and Zaisan Memorial.